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Surprise billing is one of the most hotly debated issues in health care policy, thanks to competing legislative bills in the House and ongoing rhetoric from the White House. Most people in health care agree that patients shouldn’t have to foot enormous bills because they got cared for by an out-of-network physician during surgery. What’s been harder to figure out is how to create legislation that is fair to patients, providers and payers.

Just how prevalent of a problem is this in the health care system? Researchers at the University of Michigan looked at the problem in a recent study published in JAMA. Above are some of the big data points from this research. Full study is below.